- Indobufen, a platelet aggregation inhibitor, has been shown to be a shorter acting antiplatelet in comparison to aspirin. However, it has not been studied as a component of DAPT in patients requiring stent implantation.
- In the OPTION study, patients with CAD undergoing stent placement were randomized to either indobufen or aspirin. The primary outcome of interest was a 1-year composite of CV death, nonfatal MI, ischemic stroke, definite or probable stent thrombosis, or BARC type-2, 3, or 5 bleeding
- Indobufen was found to be non-inferior to aspirin in the primary endpoint.
- There is substantial heterogeneity in the use of different non-invasive and invasive modalities for CAD risk stratification; however, there limited is RCT evidence dictating the optimal strategy.
- In the PRECISE study, patients with typical or atypical symptoms suggestive of potential CAD were randomized to either a risk-score based, “precision” strategy or usual care. The primary outcome of interest was a 1-year composite of death, nonfatal MI, or a coronary catheterization yielding no obstructive CAD.
- The precision strategy resulted in a significant 70% reduction in the primary outcome at 1 year compared to usual care.
- Recent guidelines have supported the use of arterial grafts over venous grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but there has yet to be a single randomized trial examining long-term cardiovascular outcomes with these different grafting methods.
- In the RAPCO study, patients undergoing CABG were randomized to either a) radial artery (RA) grafting versus right internal thoracic artery (RITA) grafting or b) radial artery (RA) grafting versus saphenous vein grafting (SVG). The primary outcome of interest was MACE, a composite of cardiovascular mortality, acute MI, and revascularization.
- RA grafting was superior to both RITA and SVG grafting over 15 years of follow-up.
- ECMO has been used as a salvage strategy in severe cardiogenic shock. However, it is unclear whether immediate ECMO initiation is superior to an initial trial of medical therapy with subsequent MCS utilization as needed if no improvement occurs.
- In the ECMO-CS study, patients presenting with severe cardiogenic shock (SCAI stage D-E) were randomized to either immediate ECMO or medical therapy (with downstream MCS as needed) The primary outcome of interest was a 30-day composite of death from any cause, resuscitated circulatory arrest, and implementation of any other MCS device.
- Immediate ECMO initiation was not associated with a significant reduction in the primary outcome relative to medical therapy with downstream as-needed MCS. There was a 40% crossover in the conservative arm to eventual downstream ECMO.
- Tongxinluo (TXL) is a traditional Chinese medicine with endothelial-protective effects which has been used for angina and stroke prevention in China. It has yet to be tested as a means of improving clinical outcomes in acute STEMI.
- In the CTS-MI study, patients presenting with STEMI were randomized to either TXL (at randomization, and then continued for a year) or placebo. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day MACCE, a composite of cardiovascular mortality, recurrent MI, stroke, and emergent coronary revascularization. Secondary outcomes included 1-year MACCE as well as the individual components of MACCE, severe MI complications, and adverse events.
- TXL use resulted in a 36% reduction of MACCE at 30-days and 1-year, as well as reduced severe STEMI complications. TXL use was safe, with no increase in adverse events.
- Iron deficiency is common and a poor prognostic feature in patients with heart failure. However, while iron infusion has improved symptoms in patients with HFrEF, there has been no association with improved “hard” outcomes such as hospitalization or CV death.
- In the IRONMAN study, patients with HFrEF and iron deficiency were randomized to Intravenous Ferric Derisomaltose (IV FDI) or placebo. The primary outcome of interest was a composite of recurrent HF hospitalizations and CV death.
- The observed reduction in primary endpoint with Intravenous Ferric Derisomaltose did not reach statistical significance compared to usual care.
- HF patients frequently present to the ED for acute exacerbations, and the decision whether to discharge, observe, or admit these patients can be complex.
- The COACH trial randomized acute HF patients presenting to the ED to either a standardized clinical risk stratification algorithm (based on the EHMRG30-ST score) with associated rapid outpatient HF clinic or to standard of care.
- Patients receiving the intervention had reduced 30-day and 20-month composite death and non-elective cardiovascular hospitalizations.
- Transthyretin Amyloidosis (ATTR) is a highly morbid and often fatal cause of cardiomyopathy. Existing therapies targeting TTR protein reduction have been effective, but have not managed to achieved complete or sustained knockdown of TTR levels.
- This was a Phase I study of a novel in vivo Crisp/Cas9 editing system (NTLA-2001) to reduce TTR. The primary objective was to assess safety, tolerability and PK and PD, and the secondary objective was to evaluate efficacy on clinical measures of cardiac disease.
- NTLA-2001 was generally well tolerated, with largely mild-moderate adverse events reported. Patients receiving NTLA-2001 achieved sustained, >90% reduction in TTR up to 4-6 months after infusion.
- Radial artery occlusion (RAO) is the most common complication after radial access for coronary procedures; while routine intra-procedural heparin administration is a protective factor, the role of post-procedural anticoagulation has not been established.
- In the RIVARAD study, patients undergoing trans-radial access for coronary procedures were randomized to a week of post-procedural rivaroxaban vs no additional treatment. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day incidence of RAO by ultrasound.
- Patients receiving rivaroxaban experienced a 50% reduction in RAO by ultrasound and a 52% reduction in RAO by palpation compared to the control group. Rivaroxaban use was safe with no increase in overall hemorrhagic complications relative to the control arm.
- Early high-intensity statin therapy is standard of practice in acute STEMI patients, but this is often insufficient to achieve LDL targets. PCSK-9 therapy has never been tested as routine therapy in STEMI.
- In the EPIC STEMI trial, routine PCSK-9 initiation in addition to high-intensity statin prior to primary PCI resulted in a 22% LDL reduction at 6 weeks relative to sham, with a higher proportion of patients achieving therapeutic LDL targets.
- Previous studies have demonstrated the superiority of CABG over PCI in the treatment of multivessel disease; however, most studies were performed without the use of newer second-generation stents.
- The two-year outcomes of the BEST trial demonstrated superiority of CABG compared to PCI with second-generation everolimus-eluting DES; however, the authors then pursued an extended outcome analysis up to a median follow-up of 11.8 years.
- There was no difference between PCI and CABG at extended follow-up in the primary outcome composite of all-cause death, MI, and total revascularization. However, the rate of spontaneous MI and repeat revascularization was higher in the PCI arm.
- IVUS use reduced the incidence of the primary composite amongst patients undergoing PCI.
- Mortality for acute PE remains high. While percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been used in patients with hemodynamic instability, safety and effectiveness data from large clinical trials are needed.
- In the single-arm FLASH study, patients with acute lobar or main PA pulmonary embolism received the FlowTriever System (percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy), and both short-term and 6 month safety and effectiveness outcomes were assessed. This was perfomed as part of the FLASH multicenter, prospective registry enrolling up to 1,000 US and European PE patients.
- The FlowTriever had an excellent safety profile with only 1.8% risk of MAE and all-cause mortality of 0.8% at 30 days. Additionally, FlowTriever use was associated with substantial immediate improvements in hemodynamics, sustained improvement in echocardiographic measures of RV function, and improvement in quality of life and dyspnea at 6 months relative to presentation.
- Femoral access is used for 30% of all coronary procedures, and femoral access site complication can be catastrophic. Since the development of ultrasound-guided vascular access, many institutions have adopted ultrasound-guidance as the standard of care for femoral access. However, there is a paucity of randomized data to understand the role of ultrasound in improving the safety of coronary procedures via femoral access.
- In the UNIVERSAL study, patients randomized to ultrasound-guided femoral access did not experience a reduction in major bleeding or vascular complications at 30 days; however, ultrasound guidance did improve first attempt success and reduce the number of attempts and accidental venipuncture.
- Pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) has never been studied with a randomized trial in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The PADN-CFDA study was a sham-control randomized trial conducted in China evaluating PADN in addition to phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE-5i) therapy in patients with PAH compared to PDEi therapy with a sham procedure.
- In the primary analysis, PADN with PDE-5i therapy resulted in substantial increase in 6-minute walk distance (a measure of exercise capacity) at 6 months. PADN also reduced PVR, NT-pro BNP, and mPAP, as well as improved echocardiographic measures of RV function compared to sham treatment.
- Endovascular ultrasound denervation (uRDN) is a potentially useful technique in the management of hypertension; however, its effect in patients with mild to moderate HTN has not been well studied. The RADIANCE II study was a sham-controlled RCT aimed at determining the efficacy and safety of uRDN on patients with mild-moderate HTN.
- uRDN resulted in substantial reductions in daytime ambulatory sBP compared to sham and led to a higher percentage of time spent in therapeutic BP range.
- uRDN was a safe procedure, with no major adverse events at 30 days.
- In 2021, the Amulet IDE study demonstrated that the novel Amulet left atrial appendage occluder device was noninferior to the standard Watchman device for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The study investigators have now pursued an analysis of the three year outcomes.
- The Amulet device continued to demonstrate safety and effectiveness through 3 years of follow up.