Apixaban not Superior to Standard of Care after TAVR in ATLANTIS

The administration of apixaban monotherapy after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is not superior to the standard of the care antithrombotic treatment, results of the randomized, phase IIIb, prospective, open label, ATLANTIS trial, Anti-Thrombotic Strategy After Trans-Aortic Valve Implantation for Aortic Stenosis (NCT02664649), show. These findings hold true regardless of a patient’s baseline requirement for anticoagulation. Continue reading

Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion during Cardiac Surgery shown to Decrease Risk of Stroke

Patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing cardiac surgery should have concomitant atrial appendage occlusion, according to a new study presented at the American College of Cardiology 2021 Scientific Sessions.

“We have shown that left atrial appendage occlusion is not only a viable option but should be standard of care for patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing cardiac surgery,” says Dr. Richard Whitlock, primary investigator of the LAAOS III trial, a cardiovascular surgeon and professor of surgery at McMaster University. The results of LAAOS III were concurrently published in the New England Journal of Medicine . Continue reading

TIPS-3 Trial: The Combination of Polypill and Aspirin Administered to Patients at Intermediate Risk Led to a Lower Incidence of Cardiovascular Events Compared With Double Placebo

A recent trial by Dr. Salim Yusuf, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, indicated that combination therapy with aspirin plus a polypill (consisting of a statin plus three blood-pressure-lowering drugs) can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with placebo among participants without established cardiovascular disease, but at moderate cardiovascular risk.

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Post-Hoc Analysis of ISCHEMIA Trial: The Choice of Myocardial Infarction Definition Influences Clinical Interpretation of Results

A recent study by Dr. Bernard R. Chaitman, published in Circulation investigated the impact on clinical interpretation of using different definitions for myocardial infarctions in the ISCHEMIA trial.

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Study Shows Aortic Valve Replacement Was Associated With Better Outcomes in Patients with Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Compared With High-Gradient Aortic Stenosis Analysis of PARTNER 2A randomized trial and SAPIEN 3 registry

A recent study by Dr. Salaun, published in Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, demonstrated that aortic valve replacement in patients with the low gradient (LG, defined as mean gradient <40 mmHg) severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) has resulted in better outcomes versus in those with the high gradient (HG, defined as a mean transvalvular gradient (MG) 40 mmHg) AS. Also, the study revealed that patients with classical low flow, low gradient (CLF-LG, defined as MG <40 mmHg and LVEF <50%) AS were at higher risk of death, rehospitalization, or stroke at 2 years.

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100,000 Patient Meta-Analysis Shows Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Progression Can Be Used as a Surrogate Marker for Cardiovascular Risk

A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials with more than 100,000 patients has shown that the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) progression can be used as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular risk in the clinical trials. The results of this study published in Circulation. According to Dr. Willeit, the assessment of cIMT progression can provide a link for the development and license of new therapies for cardiovascular disease. Continue reading

Study Shows Hepatitis C Status Not Associated With Adverse Events in Adult Heart Transplant Patients by 1 Year

A recent study by Dr. Kilic, published in the American Heart Association Journal, showed similar adverse outcomes in the 1-year survival, rejection rates, and complications of patients who received a heart transplant using hepatitis C-positive (HCV+) donors whereas those using hepatitis C-negative donors.

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The Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry: Race Associated with Disease Expression and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and race: differences in disease expression, inequitable care provision, and disparate clinical outcomes

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited genetic disorder of the myocardium, and the number one culprit of sudden cardiac death in athletes, particularly African Americans.

“Is race associated with differential disease expression, inequitable care provision, or disparate clinical outcomes among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?”

In order to answer the above question, Lauren A. Eberly, et al. studied 2,467 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In a retrospective cohort study, black and white patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from the US-based sites of the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry from 1989 through 2018 compared in terms of baseline characteristics; genetic architecture; adverse outcomes such as cardiac arrest, cardiac transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation, cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, stroke,  prevalence and likelihood of developing heart failure; and receiving septal reduction therapies.

According to the results of this study (8.3 percent black; 91.7 percent white), published in the JAMA CARDIOLOGY (December 2019), compared with white patients, black patients with HCM were younger (mean age, 36.5 versus 41.9 years), were less likely to have sarcomere mutations (26.1 versus 40.5 percent), had a higher prevalence of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV heart failure at presentation (22.6 versus 15.8 percent) and were more prone to developing heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.45). Lower rates of genetic testing (26.1 versus 40.5 percent) have been observed in black patients. Although there were no racial differences in implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, the invasive septal reduction was less common among African Americans (14.6 versus 23 percent). Nevertheless, Black patients had fewer incidents of atrial fibrillation (35 [17.1 percent] versus 608 [26.9 percent].

The results of this study were in accordance with the previous studies that mentioned a higher prevalence of complicated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in African Americans in contrast to the lower prevalence of HCM in this community.  Eberly, et al. believe that racial differences in disease expression and adverse clinical outcomes are not only because of different characteristics of the disease in African Americans but also inequities in clinical care provision might be responsible for these observed differences.

Severe Coronary Calcification Might Delay Healing Following Implantation of Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents

In an autopsy-based, histopathological analysis of stented coronary lesions, severe calcification was an independent risk factor for delayed strut coverage and healing after newer-generation DES. The report of the study led by Torri was recently published in the European Heart Journal.

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GALILEO-4D: Rivaroxaban-Aspirin Based Anti-Thrombotic Therapy Post-TAVR Protects From Valve Leaflet Motion Abnormalities Rivaroxaban based strategy led to decreased prosthetic valve leaflet thickening and motion reduction following TAVR performed for severe aortic valve stenosis

An expanded analysis of 231 patients from the GALILEO trial comparing rivaroxaban-aspirin based anti-thrombotic therapy with clopidogrel-aspirin based dual anti-platelet therapy post transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), has shown that the rivaroxaban based regimen protects from valve leaflet motion abnormalities. The rivaroxaban based strategy led to decreased prosthetic valve leaflet thickening and motion reduction following TAVR performed for severe aortic valve stenosis. Continue reading

Cardiac Rehabilitation Is Associated With Decreased Hospitalization and Mortality After Cardiac Valve Surgery

Cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac valve surgery is associated with lower hospitalizations and mortality at one year. A recent cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries, published in JAMA Cardiology, revealed. 

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Treatment with Statins, RAAS Inhibitors and Platelet Inhibitors After CABG is Essential, While the Use of Beta-blockers is Questionable: Swedish Study Secondary prevention medications after coronary artery bypass grafting and long-term survival: a population-based longitudinal study from the SWEDEHEART registry

In a recent study published in the European Heart Journal, Erik Björklund et al. found that the secondary prevention medications, such as statins and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, and platelet inhibitors used after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are essential while the use of B-blockers had no association with survival and is questionable.

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SCOPE I: ACURATE Neo (Self-Expanding TAVR System) Struggles to Have An Edge On SAPIEN 3 (Balloon-Expandable TAVR System)

Results of a randomized trial presented at TCT 2019 and simultaneously published in The Lancet, showed that TAVR with the self-expanding ACURATE neo (Boston Scientific) did not meet non-inferiority compared to the balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 (Edwards Lifesciences) in terms of early safety and clinical efficacy outcomes.

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REVELATION Trial: Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon Angioplasty is Non-Inferior To The Routinely Conducted Drug-Eluting Stenting in STEMI Patients A 9 months follow-up Single-Centered Randomized Clinical Trial

According to a recent study based on the REVELATION Trial, conducted by Nicola S. Vos et al. and published in JACC, Paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty was documented to be non-inferior to the routine drug-eluting stenting (DES) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

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SYNTAXES Study: No Significant Difference In All-Cause Death At 10 Years Between PCI and CABG Results of a 10-year Follow-up Study presented at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2019

A follow-up of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial, the results of which were debuted at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2019, has shown that at 10 years, no statistically significant difference existed in all-cause mortality between percutaneous coronary intevention (PCI) using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, CABG was shown to provide significant survival benefit in patients with three-vessel disease, but not in patients with left main coronary artery disease.

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Study Shows Preoperative Fractional Flow Reserve Associated with 6-Month Anastomotic Graft Functionality in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft IMPAG trial

A team led by Dr David Glineur working in Canada and Europe on the IMpact of Preoperative fractional flow reserve on Arterial bypass Graft anastomotic function(IMPAG) trial published in European Heart Journal  that  fractional flow reserve(FFR) measured  before surgical revascularization and anastomotic function are significantly related to each other at 6 months with a cut-off value of 0.78. They also found that measuring FFR before Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting(CABG)surgery had improved function of the anastomotic graft.

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Nationwide Study Shows New-onset Left Bundle Branch Block After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Occurred in 15% of Intermediate Risk Patients and Is Associated with Worse 2 Year Outcomes

According to a new nationwide study,  new onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) post transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a recently established therapy for intermediate risk surgical candidates with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis, is associated with adverse long term clinical outcomes in patients without baseline conduction disturbances or pacemaker.  Based on the findings published in the European Heart Journal, these outcomes include cardiovascular mortality, re-hospitalization, new pacemaker implantation, and worsened left ventricular systolic function in intermediate risk patients.

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STS/ACC TVT Registry: Higher Volume Associated with Better TAVR Outcomes

Recent updates from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) maintain the volume requirements of the transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) programs to qualify for reimbursement. In corroborate with the CMS updates, the latest data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology (STS/ACC) Transcatheter Valve Therapy (TVT) Registry by Dr. Sreekanth Vemulapalli et al., published in the New England Journal of Medicine, revealed lower 30-day mortality at hospitals with a high procedural volume.

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New Study Demonstrates Significant Burden of New Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement

A study led by Dr. Rajat Kalra published in JAMA Internal Medicine showed that new-onset atrial fibrillation is a significant burden on patients after aortic valve replacement either through trans-jugular aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or aortic valve replacement (AVR). Additionally, the investigators demonstrated that atrial fibrillation (AF) was higher after AVR than after TAVI.

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LRT Trial: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement In Low Risk Patients with Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis Appears To Be Safe At 1 Year

A study led by Dr. Ronald Waksman showed that in low-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) appears to be safe at 1 year. This study, which was published in JACC Cardiovascular Interventions, provides evidence to support the use of TAVR in low-risk patients.

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